Som Tum, Thai Spicy Green Papaya Salad, Thai Food

Som Tum, Thai Spicy Green Papaya Salad, Thai Food

Som Tum, Thai Spicy Green Papaya Salad, Thai Food

Last updated on October 24, 2023 By

Som Tum, Thailand’s Beloved Papaya Salad

Thai cuisine is celebrated worldwide for its bold flavors, aromatic herbs, and harmonious balance of sweet, sour, salty, and spicy tastes. Among the plethora of dishes that showcase the richness of Thai food culture, Som Tum, also known as green papaya salad, stands out as a flavorful and refreshing delight.

All you need to make a basic Som Tum is:

A green papaya
Some Chillis
Fish Sauce

Pound for a bit in a mortar and pestle and out comes this perfect fresh, tasty and spicy Som Tum.

The Origins of Som Tum

While the exact origins of Som Tum are debated, it is widely believed to have originated in the northeastern region of Thailand, known as Isaan.

This region is famous for its fiery and pungent cuisine, heavily influenced by Laos and Cambodia.

Som Tum is a perfect representation of Isaan cuisine’s distinct characteristics.

Som Tum’s roots can be traced back to the traditional Isaan mortar and pestle method of food preparation, dating back centuries. The Isaan people would use locally available ingredients like green papaya, fish sauce, lime, and chilies to create simple yet flavorful salads.

Over time, the dish evolved as traders and immigrants introduced new ingredients and techniques to the region.

Som Tum the Perfect Thai Food

So, as I mentioned earlier the fundamental components of Som Tum include:

Green Papaya:

The unripe green papaya is the star ingredient. Its firm texture and mildly sweet taste provide the perfect canvas for absorbing the flavors of the dressing.


Thai bird’s eye chilies are the fiery element in Som Tum. The number of chilies used can be adjusted to suit your spice tolerance.

Fish Sauce:

Fish sauce adds a savory, umami depth to the dish, balancing the heat and acidity.


Freshly squeezed lime juice contributes a bright and zesty sourness.


A bit of sugar, traditionally palm sugar, provides sweetness to counterbalance the sourness and spiciness.


Garlic cloves are pounded in the mortar to release their pungent aroma and flavor.


While the basic ingredients remain constant, there are several regional and ingredient variations of Som Tum across Thailand:

Som Tum Thai: This is the most common version, typically found in central Thailand. It includes roasted peanuts, dried shrimp, tomatoes, and sometimes, yardlong beans.

This one is my favorite. I am always disappointed if I order Som Tum and it comes without peanuts and dried shrimps and you will find many restaurants and hotels that cater to tourist will not add the peanuts and dried shrimp.

Som Tum Laos: In northeastern Thailand (Isaan), the salad often features fermented fish sauce (plara) and can be even spicier than its counterparts.

Som Tum Poo Pla Ra: This variation includes fermented fish sauce, crab, and is often enjoyed with sticky rice.

This one I really don’t like. The fermented fish and crab kinda put me off. It’s not for the fait hearted.

Som Tum Mamuang: This version uses green mango instead of papaya, providing a tart and slightly different texture.

Everyone has their own little tweaks and tricks for their perfect Som Tum, and that’s what makes it such an awesome dish, in fact it’s not just a dish

It’s a representation of the diversity and vibrancy of Thai cuisine.

From its humble origins in the Isaan region to its variations across Thailand, this green papaya salad reflects the country’s rich culinary heritage.

Whether you prefer it spicy, sweet, or somewhere in between, Som Tum is a delightful exploration of Thai flavors that will leave your taste buds tingling and your heart yearning for more.

So, the next time you crave a refreshing, spicy, and utterly satisfying dish, give Som Tum a try, and embark on a culinary journey through Thailand’s remarkable food culture.